Pictured below: HAARP in Gakona, Alaska
http://www.haarp.alaska.edu (website turned off during current government experimentation schedule)
All links below should satisfy MOST questions — save the pdf’s before they’re gone for good !
Weather control being planned for several years (decades):
Move forward 35 years …quote Secretary of Defense William Cohen :
DARPA allocates funds for the use of HAARP
Here are actual budgets allocated by the Department of Defense / .pdf from DARPA.mil — 2012 and 2013:
download the .pdf from my site here:
2013-2014 budget :
download the .pdf from my site here:
Airforce “Owning the Weather in 2025 : Weather as a force multiplier” document
download the .pdf directly from my site here :Executive Summary In 2025, US aerospace forces can “own the weather” by capitalizing on emerging technologies and focusing development of those technologies to war-fighting applications. Such a capability offers the war fighter tools to shape the battlespace in ways never before possible. It provides opportunities to impact operations across the full spectrum of conflict and is pertinent to all possible futures. The purpose of this paper is to outline a strategy for the use of a future weather-modification system to achieve military objectives rather than to provide a detailed technical road map. A high-risk, high-reward endeavor, weather-modification offers a dilemma not unlike the splitting of the atom. While some segments of society will always be reluctant to examine controversial issues such as weather-modification, the tremendous military capabilities that could result from this field are ignored at our own peril. From enhancing friendly operations or disrupting those of the enemy via small-scale tailoring of natural weather patterns to complete dominance of global communications and counterspace control, weather-modification offers the war fighter a wide-range of possible options to defeat or coerce an adversary. Some of the potential capabilities a weather-modification system could provide to a war-fighting commander in chief (CINC) are listed in table 1. Technology advancements in five major areas are necessary for an integrated weather-modification capability: (1) advanced nonlinear modeling techniques, (2) computational capability, (3) information gathering and transmission, (4) a global sensor array, and (5) weather intervention techniques. Some intervention tools exist today and others may be developed and refined in the future. Table 1 – Operational Capabilities Matrix
|DEGRADE ENEMY FORCES||ENHANCE FRIENDLY FORCES|
|Precipitation Enhancement||Precipitation Avoidance|
|– Flood Lines of Communication||– Maintain/Improve LOC|
|– Reduce PGM/Recce Effectiveness||– Maintain Visibility|
|– Decrease Comfort Level/Morale||– Maintain Comfort Level/Morale|
|Storm Enhancement||Storm Modification|
|– Deny Operations||– Choose Battlespace Environment|
|Precipitation Denial||Space Weather|
|– Deny Fresh Water||– Improve Communication Reliability|
|— Induce Drought||– Intercept Enemy Transmissions|
|Space Weather||– Revitalize Space Assets|
|– Disrupt Communications/Radar||Fog and Cloud Generation|
|– Disable/Destroy Space Assets||– Increase Concealment|
|Fog and Cloud Removal||Fog and Cloud Removal|
|– Deny Concealment||– Maintain Airfield Operations|
|– Increase Vulnerability to PGM/Recce||– Enhance PGM Effectiveness|
|Detect Hostile Weather Activities||Defend against Enemy Capabilities|
Dr. Michio Kaku Confirms weather modification via frequency on ABC News:
click the pic to watch the video:
CNN – in 1985 – discussing weather modification via frequency:
click the pic to watch the video:
Current US Military Directed Energy Warfare Office (DEWO):
Click the pic to watch the video:
United States Directed Energy Warfare Office (DEWO):
DEWO – High Power Microwaves (HPM) / Directed Energy Weapons (DEW):
download the full .pdf directly from my site here:
Tornadoes created via Microwaves — Experiments PROVE THEORY CORRECT
The above video , shows via experiments in the laboratory, that indeed microwaves CAN induce tornadic development.
This brings a definitive close to a 2 year long odyssey of discovery, and investigation, but raises SEVERAL new questions which need answers.
The process of discovery was a long arduous road, lined with skeptics AND deniers. A path leading down many rabbit holes, and across many intriguing disciplines.
Spending long hours of study on Radio Frequency theory, Plasma Physics, Micro-physics, Meteorology, weather modification (geoengineering), Electromagnetism, Geometry, Seismology, and even some planetary physics / astronomy…. All the studying, and hypothesizing, has turned out to be well worth the effort.
Vindication comes from a Scientist in Switzerland, Dr. Slobodan Tepic, who performed the appropriate experiments to prove microwaves are capable of producing convection using a ground based station pulsing into the atmosphere.
US Navy Labs create Plasma Spheres (rings) using HAARP
U.S. Naval Research Laboratory research physicists and engineers from the Plasma Physics Division, working at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) transmitter facility, Gakona, Alaska, successfully produced a sustained high density plasma cloud in Earth’s upper atmosphere.
“Previous artificial plasma density clouds have lifetimes of only ten minutes or less,” said Paul Bernhardt, Ph.D., NRL Space Use and Plasma Section. “This higher density plasma ‘ball’ was sustained over one hour by the HAARP transmissions and was extinguished only after termination of the HAARP radio beam.”
Sequence of images of the glow plasma discharge produced with transmissions at the third electron gyro harmonic using the HAARP HF transmitter, Gakona, Alaska. The third harmonic artificial glow plasma clouds were obtained with HAARP using transmissions at 4.34 megahertz (MHz). The resonant frequency yielded green line (557.7 nanometer emission) with HF on November 12, 2012, between the times of 02:26:15 to 02:26:45 GMT.
Contacts and sources:
Naval Research Laboratory
2.45GHz @ 500,000watts across several miles.. NASA Goldstone RADAR experiment from 1975.
A fully successful transmission of electricity (wireless) across several miles to a Rectenna.
In comparison to the Goldstone 1975 NASA experiment – 2.45GHz @ 500,000watts – modern day NEXRAD Weather RADAR (used by NWS/NOAA) operates in the 2-3GHz spectrum @ 750,000watts.
This means , just like the 1975 NASA experiment, our current NEXRAD weather RADARs can transmit power (intentionally or unintentionally) to a distant location.
Here are just a few of the .pdfs referring to the 1975 RADAR wireless power transmission experiment:
Here is the full search to find MUCH more information on the subject:
HAARP in the main stream media:
How HAARP technology can make an earthquake:
HAARP viewing things inside the earth .. Earth Penetrating Tomography: click to view larger image
download the .pdf from my site here:
Excitation of Magnetospheric Resonators with HAARP
HAARP pulses and RADAR pulses mimic each other :
Full .pdf here:
download mirror on my site here:
Screenshots below from the .pdf clearly show two diagrams which explain what we’ve been seeing a LOT of in the past few years.. RADAR pulses
Notice the ring diagram of the plasma rings from HAARP directly MATCHES several of the RADAR pulses we’ve seen.
In this .pdf you will see multiple diagrams, AND physical pictures of the plasma events, which occurred from using radio frequency to produce a HEATED RING above the ground based station.
all pics can be seen here in my photo album..
RADAR pulses from Pennsylvania mimicking HAARP pulses, January 2013 :
Using Frequency to perform weather modification
download the .pdf directly from my site here:
“Over the past ten years the company Aquiess has repeatedly demonstrated this technology to government and humanitarian observer groups.The proprietary weather modification system operates by utilizing ‘resonance’ signals to divert oceanic atmospheric rivers into areas experiencing severe drought.TheAquiess system does not rely on chemical or biologically hazardous materials, which could potentially harm the environment.”
ARTIFICIAL ATMOSPHERIC IONIZATION: A Potential Window for Weather Modification
Full .pdf here:
Ionization technology creates over 50 rain storms in the desert :
NOAA Weather Modification Form :
Download the .pdf directly from my site here:
The USGS seeding the clouds to make it snow:
download mirror here:
A few of the weather modification COMPANIES in operation today inside the USA:
MIT Alumni — Journey to engineer the weather
MIT — How to Halt a Hurricane
Download the .pdf mirrored here:
It’s the loudest sound you’ll come across 0n the short wave now. 8.545 megahertz is one. 8.570 …this is before 12:00 noon. 12.815 and 12.850, 17.110, 18.370 MHz. Then in the afternoon and sometimes after 6:00 PM you will hear it on 17.110 and other frequencies as well. So we’re getting really blasted with this thing
Dr. Moshe Alamaro (worked with Dr. Eastlund in weather modification / engineering) As a graduate student and later as a Research Scientist at the MIT Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences (EAPS) Moshe Alamaro helped to design, build and manage the MIT Air-Sea Interaction Lab where he supervised six students.
Alamaro, M.; “My Journey to Engineer the Weather”, MIT Alumni News and Views, What Matters: June 2009.
North Dakota cloud seeding / weather modification project (2012) :
Wisconsin Weather Modification Rules (2012):
Desert Research Institute Cloud Seeding Program (2012) :
Texas cloud seeding operations:
Idaho Power cloud seeding program (2012) :
Colorado cloud seeding program (2012) :
Colorado Department of Natural Resources Weather Modification Rules / Regulations :
Embry-Riddle University information on Cloud Seeding :
American Socity of Civil Engineers “How to” on hail suppression :
More .pdfs and information on weather modification via frequency and aerosols:
Airplanes around airports CAUSE snow and rain NEARBY
“Airplanes flying through super-cooled clouds around airports can cause condensation that results in more snow and rain nearby, according to a new study.
Here is a very long list of links, diagrams, photos, and .pdf files from institutions like Stanford, Leicester University, Cornell, Harvard, etc.. also from several military and .gov sites
Some links work, others are “down” but still included to prove they DID exist. These things have a way of disappearing off the net, so download them and MIRROR them on other file sharing sites if you can.
Ionospheric Heating using frequency – Earth Penetrating Tomography using ground based stations:
US Navy electronic warfare :
Outlawing the use of VLF to HF weapons / tectonic weapons / weather modification weapons :
Download the .pdf directly from my site here:
Senate Bill S.601 – weather ‘mitigation’ bill – Sponsored by Senator Kay Bailey Hutchison and John Rockefeller
Download the .pdf directly from my site here:
Other locations similar to the IRI antennas in Alaska :
Sura Ionospheric Heating Facility
The EISCAT Associates
Their Facility –
EISCAT Headquarters are located at Kiruna in Sweden
The EISCAT Scientific Association,
PO Box 812,
S-981 28 KIRUNA
The 49.92 MHz incoherent scatter radar is the principal facility of the Observatory. The radar antenna consists of a large square array of 18,432 half-wave dipoles arranged into 64 separate modules of 12 x 12 crossed half-wave dipoles. Each linear polarization of each module can be separately phased (by hand, changing cable lengths), and the modules can be fed separately or connected in almost any desired fashion. There is great flexibility, but changes cannot be made rapidly. The individual modules have a beam width of about 7°, and the array can be steered within this region by proper phasing. The one way half power beam width of the full array is about 1.1°; the two way (radar) half power beam width is about 0.8°. The frequency bandwidth is about 1 MHz. The isolation between the linear polarizations is very good, at least 50 dB, which is important for certain measurements. Since the array is on the ground and the Observatory is the only sign of man in a desert region completely surrounded by mountains, there is no RF interference.
The original transmitter consisted of four completely independent modules which could be operated together or separately. Two of those modules have been converted to a new design using modern tubes and each of these new modules can deliver a peak power of ~1.5 MW, with a maximum duty cycle of 6%, and pulses as short as 0.8-1.0 s. Pulses as long as 2 ms show little power droop; considerably longer pulses are probably possible. The other two modules are currently unavailable until their conversion is complete. The third is actually more than 95% complete; the fourth is well advanced. The drivers of the main transmitter can also be used as transmitters for applications requiring only 50-100 KW of peak power.
An additional antenna module with 12 x 12 crossed dipoles was built in 1996. It is located 204 m to the west of the west corner of the main antenna and increases the lengths of the available interferometer base line to 564 m.
There are 3 additional 50 MHz “mattress” array antennas steerable to +/-70° zenith angles in the E-W direction only. Each consists of 4 x 2 half-wave dipoles mounted a quarter wavelength above a ground screen. Two of these arrays can handle high powers. There is also a single fat dipole mounted a quarter wavelength above ground that can handle at least a megawatt. There is a lot of land around the Observatory for additional antennas for special experiments. Arrays of a kilometer or more in length could be set up (in certain directions).
There are four phase-coherent (common oscillators) receivers for the radars. These mix the signal to baseband (with two quadrature outputs each), with maximum output bandwidths of about 1 MHz. Filters are available with nominal impulse response time constants ranging from 1 to 500 s. As many as eight data channels (four complex pairs) can be sampled simultaneously with 125 m (0.83 s) resolution and fed to a large FIFO buffer/coherent integrator, and from there to one of the computers. We are in the process of designing new receivers; we plan to have at least eight, with more precise digital filtering at the output.
The computing hardware at JRO is constantly evolving. For many years the main data-taking computer has been a Harris H800 with various tape drives, including two Exabyte 2.2 GByte 8 mm cassette tape drives (maximum writing speed of 256 KBytes/s). But now there is also a Harris Nighthawk computer (UNIX operating system) with an 80-MFLOPS array processor and various workstations and PCs, all networked together. Data acquisition can be hosted by any one of a number of these machines with real-time processing and display capabilities.
The JULIA radar shares the main antenna of the Jicamarca Radio Observatory. JULIA (which stands for Jicamarca Unattended Long-term investigations of the Ionosphere and Atmosphere) has an independent PC-based data acquisition system and makes use of some of the exciter stages of the Jicamarca radar along with the main antenna array. Since this system does not use the main high-power transmitters (which are expensive and labor intensive to operate and maintain), it can run unsupervised for long periods of time. With a pair of 30-kW peak power pulsed transmitters driving a 290 m by 290 m modular antenna array, JULIA is a formidable MST/coherent scatter radar. It is uniquely suited for studying the day-to-day and long-term variability of equatorial plasma irregularities and neutral atmospheric waves, which until now have only been investigated episodicly or in campaign mode.
Arecibo, Puerto Rico
Millstone Hill, USA
Pic of Haystack facility and more info:
Sondre stromfjord, Greenland
(search for scatter)
The Institute possesses a complex of unique astrophysical equipment deployed in the Sayan Mountains, especially the Siberian solar radiotelescope, a large solar vacuum telescope, an incoherent scatter radar, as well as a network of astrophysical laboratories throughout the territory of Siberia.
USA (Besides HAARP)
HIPAS — High Power Auroral Stimulation Observatory
Located near Fairbanks Alaska
Fairbanks, Alaska has been the host for UCLA’s use of HIPAS Observatory for the study of the aurora borealis and is now shut down.
FAIRBANKS — After spending a quarter-century accumulating astronomical equipment in Two Rivers, of all places, the UCLA physics department plans to spend this year doing a little housecleaning.The Los Angeles-based university has shut down the HIPAS Observatory, a remote site it maintained at 26 Mile Chena Hot Springs Road that was used for atmospheric research.
When HIPAS was a functioning observatory, it boasted an inventory of exotic-sounding equipment that UCLA said made it “one of the best locations for the observation of the aurora borealis.”A one-megawatt transmitter could produce extremely low-frequency electromagnetic waves, and a 2.7-meter liquid mirror telescope was on site with a half-dozen lasers for “ionospheric stimulation and measurement.”
A plasma torch was used for research on the destruction of hazardous waste, along with an incoherent scatter radar for studying the ionosphere. A pair of diesel generators provided power for experiments.UCLA Senior Counsel Glenn Fitchman said the university is in the process of selling its inventory at Two Rivers, although he didn’t have details about what specific equipment remains at HIPAS and what is being sold.“This is a very slow process of taking down the site,” Fitchman said. “A lot of stuff has accumulated over time.”
The HIPAS Observatory was mothballed when its director moved into semi-retirement last year, Fitchman said, and no researchers have been stationed there for a year or longer. UCLA has leased the site from the University of Alaska since 1986.HIPAS — the acronym stands for High Power Auroral Stimulation — was used for experimental research on the aurora borealis, energy conduction in the ionosphere and high-power radio transmissions. The observatory had four permanent staff members, according to UCLA officials.
Fitchman said retired UCLA professor Alfred Wong, the former director of HIPAS, has stepped down and funding for his research has dried up. He said that the University of California isn’t interested in pursuing Wong’s research, so HIPAS is being closed.HIPAS occasionally made news as the site of unusual ionospheric research. Part of its research included directing electrical energy into the ionosphere, allowing the observatory to study its effect on the aurora.In 2006, Wong told the American Geophysical Union that he planned an experiment at HIPAS to direct carbon dioxide into outer space, which could be a possible aid in curbing global warming.
Wong wanted to try to carry negatively charged carbon-dioxide particles out of the atmosphere, using the earth’s magnetic field as a conveyor.Wong didn’t return messages to comment on his research or the closure.The UCLA Physics Department Web site describes the HIPAS Observatory as a 120-acre site with six buildings, including a bunkhouse for visiting researchers.
The UAF lease terms describe it as a 130-acre site.The HIPAS Observatory had a similar research role as the High frequency Active Auroral Research Program, or HAARP, which is located near Gakona. The two Alaska facilities, along with the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico, were the only ionospheric research sites operated by the U.S. government, according to the HAARP Web site.UCLA was paying $10,000 per year to UA for the HIPAS lease, which has come to an end. UA spokeswoman Kate Ripley said there are no immediate plans for the facility.
ULCAR stations :
Stanford VLF AWESOME network:
CERN and HAARP –
CERN / HAARP .pdf download mirror here:
Books and older publications covering weather modification:
Geometric Modulation (shaping a signal to increase power) :
Lower ionosphere heating / geometric modulation / circle sweeps, sawtooth sweeps, square wave, rectangle wave:
download the .pdf mirrored on my site here:
These shots below come from a Navy .mil website .. clearly showing a “HAARP ring / Circle sweep” pattern and circumference similar to that which we are seeing on RADAR — only MUCH more powerful — covering the entire state of Alaska.. done using electromagnetic modulation from a ground based station.. VLF and UHF.
“By modulating the ambient current flowing in the ionosphere, e.g., the auroral electrojet, it is possible to generate extremely low frequency (ELF) and very low frequency (VLF) radiation. This ionospheric modification technique can provide such waves for probing both the Earth and the ionosphere- magnetosphere. The modification occurs in the lower D-region and can provide information about the ambient conditions in one of the least diagnosed regions of the ionosphere.
The electrojet is modulated by using a high frequency heater (a few MHZ) with the power modulated at the desired ELF/VLF frequency to heat the ionospheric electrons in the lower D-region. Figure 1a shows a sketch of the heater and heated region. The heated region is typically at 75 km (though this depends upon the carrier frequency) and can be 30 km in diameter and a few km thick. Viewed from above (see Figure 1b) the heated region is a roughly circular patch. The smoothness of the heated region depends upon the antenna radiation pattern as well as D-region conditions. The heating increases the electron-neutral collision rate which changes the conductivities. Since on ELF time scales the ambient electric field is constant, modulating the conductivity produces a current modulated at the same frequency. At these altitudes the conductivity change is predominantly in the Hall conductivity. If the ambient electric field, E, is in ±y direction, a time varying current perturbation is generated, j, in the ±x direction (Fig. 1b). The time varying current launches waves both up and down the Earth’s magnetic field. In the simulations shown here, we start with a time-varying current and study the downward propagating waves and how they couple into the Earth-ionospheric wave guide.
The animations show 5 different representations of the same simulation. The simulation uses a time-varying current perturbation (1 kHz) in the D-region at 75 km. The current is in the magnetic east-west direction. The Earth’s magnetic field is vertical. The simulation box is 1800 by 1800 by 120 km. Isosurfaces are shown for the absolute value of the horizontal magnetic field ABSB and of the vertical electric field ABSEZ. Also shown is the east-west magnetic field in the near-field BX1 and in the far-field BX2. Since the field amplitude falls off with distance, BX1 uses a order-of-magnitude larger isosurface value than BX2 to emphasize the field close to the site. The north- south magnetic field is shown in BY1 and BY2. These plots look slightly different from the absolute value plots where both the positive and negative surfaces were shown. Also BX and BY do have a different orientation of the their radiation patterns. The direction of the radiation is determined by the total horizontal field shown in ABSB and by the vertical electric field shown in ABSEZ. The radiation pattern in the earth-ionosphere waveguide is a combination of a linear dipole antenna and a right-hand circular antenna. At ELF frequencies because of low D-region absorption the dipole is dominant. The dipole radiates in the magnetic east-west direction.
Because 1 kHz is below cutoff the mode in the waveguide is a TEM mode. The mode consists of a horizontal B field perpendicular to the direction of propagation and a vertical electric field. With perfect conductors, the mode is uniform in the vertical direction. As the wave propagates in the waveguide, the top of the wave is approximately at the bottom of the ionosphere. Above the heated region, waves are also launched along the Earth’s magnetic field. In the near-field ( BX1 and BY1) one can see the pulse being radiated downward. It strikes the ground and reflects back up to the ionosphere. Part of the energy propagates up the field lines into the ionosphere. This is the bubble seen rising up. The D-region is highly collisional and damps this wave. Looking at BX2 and BY2 one can see that the energy mainly stays in the waveguide. If one looks closely at the top of the wave in the waveguide the wave appears to be curved. The waveguide mode is coupling into the bottom of the D-region and driving a whistler mode up the field lines. The whistlers have a much lower velocity than the waveguide mode and can only propagate along the field lines. This acts to curve the top of the waves. These waves help form the bubble that propagates up the field line. Because of this, the diameter of the bubble is much larger than the heated region.
Above the heated region in ABSEZ one can see a pair of coils revolving around each other. These are the currents that flow up and down the Earth’s magnetic field forming the current loops associated with the waves propagating up the field lines. Finally, EZ1 is a blow-up of the high-altitude portion of the vertical electric field for positive values of the electric field; the current loop is more clearly seen.”
Ionospheric modification and ELF/VLF wave generation by HAARP
download the .pdf mirrored here:
Recently, we’ve been calling them “HAARP clouds”.. long ribbed cloud formations like ripples of water….. up until this point it was speculation.. BUT….. here we see these HAARP clouds listed in a HAARP MIT researchers public files from MIT…… make SURE to walk the parent directory at the link below!!!
photo below was taken by a MIT HAARP researcher while in Alaska .. several more of his own personal shots at the above link:
check out the OTHER files in this MIT backdoor.
check the ‘public’ file.. listen to the HAARP whislter that is listed in this MIT researchers cache :
Again, the above link is a back end MIT page.. download whatever you can before its gone!!! you should for sure check the UROP file as well…
BE SURE TO SEARCH THE PARENT DIRECTORIES !
MIT/HAARP the ‘BLACK MAGIC’ chart on frequency wavelength propagation
HAARP buoy project off the coast of New Zealand :
Characterization of the Modified and Ambient Lower Ionosphere for HAARP using VLF diagnostics :
It is well documented that localized conductivity perturbations in the D region cause scattering of VLF waves propagating in the earth-ionosphere waveguide. These disturbances are generally caused by localized changes in electron density or temperature.
VLF signals scattered from these disturbed regions add to the direct signal from distant transmitters to cause amplitude and phase changes in the total received signal.
Experiments by Jones et al., Dowden et al., Barr et al., and Bell et al. indicate that ionospheric disturbances produced by powerful HF heaters can generate readily measurable changes in the amplitude and the phase of subionospheric VLF signals propagating near the heater. Several different HF heating facilities located at Platteville, Colorado, at Ramfjordmoen, in Norway, and the HAARP facility in Gakona, Alaska have been used in the past to study this effect.
Since the VLF amplitude and phase perturbations are produced by D-region perturbations, a set of amplitude and phase measurements can be used to characterize the perturbed D-region.
Below are some results from Bell et al., experiment from the 1992 HIPAS campaign. This experiment uses the VLF amplitude and phase measured at Fort Yukon, Alaska, transmitted at 23.4 kHz from NPM, Hawaii. The HIPAS heater creates a disturbed region close to the great circle path between NLK and FY.
Figure 1 shows VLF data recorded on 30th of September 1992. The HIPAS heater is turned on for 100 milliseconds and turned off for the next 400 milliseconds. This cycle with a period of half a second is recorded for 28 minutes. The superposed epoch analysis shown in the middle panel is obtained by dividing the data in the upper panel into 500 millisecond segments that are subsequently summed and averaged. Thus we get a single 500 ms result. The first 100 milliseconds consists of the superposition of the direct signal and the scattered signal from heated ionosphere over the HIPAS HF heater, while the next 400 milliseconds is the direct VLF signal from NPM. There is a clear amplitude increase of about .18 dB due to the scattered signal. The spectral analysis also clearly shows the peaks at 2Hz and its harmonics.
Click for a larger image
Click for a lager image
FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2
Figure 2 shows a similar analysis done for the phase of the VLF signal and we can see that there is a phase difference of -4.5 degrees. This phase difference is again due to the scattered signal from the heated region.
The aim of the HAARP project is to characterize the Modified and Ambient Lower Ionosphere for HAARP using VLF diagnostics. The basis of the VLF diagnostic depends on the described amplitude and phase changes in the VLF signal.
For this purpose, 3 VLF signals will be used transmitted at three different frequencies. NAA transmits at 24.0 kHz from 44:65 N 67:28 W. The signal will be received at Wasilla (61:34 N, 149:27 W). NLK (48:20 N 121:91W) transmits at 24.8 kHz. The signal is received at Healy (63:48 N , 149 W). NPM (21:41 N, 158:15 W) signal transmitted at 23.4 kHz is received at Delta Jcn (64:03 N, 145.42 W). The receiving sites are chosen such that the propagation path of the VLF signal passes through the heated region by the HAARP system which is simply shown by the red circle in the following figures.
FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4
The 6 measurements (3 amplitude and 3 phase) of VLF signal is used to diagnose the modified temperature profile. The following diagram explaind the method implemented in the inversion of VLF data.
Here is an example of superposed epoch analysis showing the NLK VLF transmitter signal being modified by the HAARP transmitter. During the 15 minutes of modulation, there is clearly a 25 Hz signal superimposed on top of the received amplitude. The same analysis is applied to the following 15 minutes, when the modulation was off.
During the HAARP campaign during 8 March 1999-28 March 1999 VLF signals will be continuously recorded at the sites and some more results will be posted in this WWW page.
The stations used in this campaign are listed below :
HAARP Station #1 : Healy
HAARP Station #2 : Wasilla
HAARP Station #3 : Delta Junction
The HAARP IRI is a high power transmitter operating in the High Frequency (HF) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Many other high power installations operate in this band including other ionospheric research facilities and international broadcast stations. The following chart compares a few other such facilities with the HAARP IRI at various phases of its construction up to the final completed facility, the FIRI. Also see the chart of currently operating ionospheric interaction facilities showing their performance compared on a frequency basis.
The full name of each of these facilities is:
- Arecibo (National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center, Puerto Rico)
- HAARP DP (Developmental Prototype)
- HAARP Current Facility
- HAARP Final Facility
- HIPAS High Power Auroral Stimulation Observatory
- HISCAT (International Radio Observatory, Sweden)
- SURA (Radiophysical Research Institute, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia)
- Tromsoe (EISCAT facility, Norway)
- VOA (Voice of America – Delano, CA)
The simplest antenna systems consist of a single antenna element, often in the form of a dipole or a loop. These simple antenna types generally have a broad radiation pattern such that radio signals are transmitted (or received) over a very large number of directions. This broad coverage may be desirable for some applications. Cellular telephones, for example, must be able to send and receive the conversation toward the nearest cellular tower no matter where the user may be located and without the user having to point the handset. As a result, the antenna used in this application (a form of dipole) has a very broad area of coverage.
For other applications, it may be possible to determine where the radio signal should be transmitted. For example, antennas used on commercial and DoD satellite systems are designed to transmit (and to receive) their radio signals toward the surface the Earth since that is where the users are. These satellites, often located at geostationary altitudes, use antennas with fairly narrow radiation patterns to maximize the power reaching the Earth and to minimize the power that is wasted by being transmitted in other directions.
The HF antenna system to be used for Active Ionospheric Research at the HAARP site will assist other facility instruments in the study the overhead ionosphere. As a result, it too has been designed to optimize or restrict the transmission pattern to lie within a narrow overhead region. To achieve this desirable antenna pattern, the HAARP system uses an “array” of individual antenna elements. The HAARP antenna array is similar or identical to many other types of directive antenna types in use for both military and civilian applications including air traffic control radar systems, long range surveillance systems, steerable communication systems and navigation systems.
Whenever two or more simple antenna structures (such as the individual dipoles used at HAARP) are brought together and driven from a source of power (a transmitter) at the same frequency, the resulting antenna pattern becomes more complex due to interference between the signals transmitted separately from each of the individual elements. At some points, this interference may be constructive causing the transmitted signal to be increased. At other points, the interference may be destructive causing a decrease or even a cancellation of transmitted energy in that direction.
|Figure 1. An array of two dipole antennas.||In Figure 1 to the left, two dipole antennas are placed close to each other and excited with a transmitter. The transmitter’s power is split evenly between the two elements so that the excitations applied to each dipole are equal in amplitude and in phase. The resulting antenna pattern is narrower or sharper in the broadside direction than it would have been for either dipole alone. Moreover, the strength of the transmitted signal in the broadside direction (T1 in the figure), is stronger than the transmitted signal would have been for one dipole antenna with the same total transmitter power. The ratio of the strength of the signal at the pattern maximum (i.e. at T1) to the signal for a single antenna element is called the pattern gain. Pattern gain is accomplished at the expense of power transmitted in other directions. The strength of the signal off-broadside (T2 in the figure) would be weaker for the case of two dipoles (as shown) than it would have been for a single dipole.|
The purpose of an antenna array is to achieve directivity, the ability to send the transmitted signal in a preferred direction. If a large number of array elements can be used, it is possible to greatly enhance the strength of the signal transmitted in a given direction while suppressing or even eliminating the signal transmitted in other directions.
|Figure 2. An array of four dipole antennas. The pattern is sharper and sidelobes may be present.||By adding additional antenna elements, the pattern can be further narrowed. Figure 2, to the left, shows four dipole antennas placed near each other and excited from a single transmitter whose power has been equally split four ways such that the signals arriving at the dipoles are all of equal magnitude and all of the same phase. The pattern in this case is narrower than the previous example for two dipoles. Additionally, the strength of the signal in the broadside direction is stronger than the strength of the signal in the two dipole case (T3 > T1). Again this is accomplished by the removal of power that had been radiated in unwanted directions into the main, broadside direction or main lobe.Figure 2 also shows the appearance of lower level maxima or sidelobes in the total antenna pattern. Sidelobes are a characteristic feature of most complex antenna arrays. Sidelobes are generally undesirable characteristics of an antenna system and numerous techniques have been developed over the years to suppress them.|
It is theoretically possible to suppress sidelobes completely in an array of antenna elements if the excitation of each element is controllable. The process of shaping the antenna pattern so as to eliminate sidelobes is called tapering. Eliminating sidelobes results in less total gain at the pattern maximum, however, and it yields a broader main lobe.
|Figure 3. An array of four dipoles in which the individual elements are driven at a predetermined relative phase.||While the shape of the antenna pattern can be tailored by careful choice of the amplitude of the individual element excitations, the angle at which the pattern maximum occurs can be changed by adjusting the phase of the excitations of each of the antenna elements. If the elements are all driven in-phase, the pattern maximum will occur broadside to the array. If the phases of the excitations to each element are chosen correctly, however, the peak of the main lobe can be shifted (or steered) to a new angle relative to broadside. In general, the maximum signal strength at the new pointing angle (T4 in Figure 3 to the left) is close to but less than the broadside case.When the pattern is steered to a new direction, the shape and direction of any sidelobes that may have originally been present changes. If the pattern is steered too far relative to the element spacing, a new lobe (called a grating lobe) will appear with a peak in its pattern nearly equal to the main lobe. The point where this occurs is the maximum useful steering angle.|
The gain and narrow pattern shape obtained in an array of antenna elements can be equivalently obtained using a properly shaped reflector such as a parabolic dish. Such high gain antennas are commonly used for satellite reception by commercial enterprises and are frequently seen in suburban neighborhoods. (Dishes can actually produce much sharper patterns than can be achieved with practical sized phased arrays.) However, parabolic dishes are pointed using mechanical gears and motors and are not agile. A phased array can be re-pointed quite rapidly, dependent only on the speed with which the phases of the exciting signals at the terminals of the individual elements can be readjusted.
The examples shown above are all for arrays in which the elements are arranged in only one dimension. Such arrays are called linear arrays. It is also possible to construct antenna arrays in two dimensions (the HAARP antenna array is built in this manner). Such arrays are called planar arrays. Finally, arrays have been constructed in three dimensions and these are called volumetric arrays. Arrays in this class are sometimes used for underwater acoustic applications in which the individual array elements are acoustic transducers.
The amount of gain that is obtainable in an antenna array (remember, gain refers to the highest signal strength at the pattern maximum) is directly related to the narrowness of the antenna pattern. A narrow pattern implies a high antenna gain. A satellite dish antenna has a very high gain and a narrow antenna pattern. Manually pointing a consumer satellite dish antenna is a time consuming process since the peak of the antenna beam must be precisely positioned to point directly at the desired satellite.
The HAARP antenna array has a gain and a pattern shape that is a function of the frequency used. For the final, 180 element array, consisting of 15 columns by 12 rows of elements, the array gain will range from 100 (or 20 dB) at an operating frequency of 3 MHz to 1000 (or 30 dB) at the highest frequency, 10 MHz. The narrowest possible pattern width of 5 degrees will occur at the highest operating frequency, 10 MHz, as shown in Figure 4 to the left.
Because each of the elements in the array can be excited independently in amplitude, the array pattern can be shaped so as to reduce or eliminate extraneous and unwanted sidelobes. Also, the transmitter signal applied to the individual elements can be adjusted independently in phase, allowing great flexibility pointing the peak of the antenna pattern. To avoid grating lobes, the main lobe can only be be pointed to angles within 30 degrees of directly overhead.
Also see the HAARP Antenna Performance Parameters page for additional information.
HAARP JOINT SERVICES PROGRAM PLANS AND ACTIVITIES: Air Force Geophysics Laboratory and Office of Naval Research, February 1990 (PDF)
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Popular Mechanics Magazine: The World’s 18 Strangest Military Bases
Upper Ionosphere changes HF (high frequency) into ULF (ultra low frequency) :
In essence.. this shows that one can send a HF (high frequency) signal into the upper ionosphere with HAARP, and it “transforms” into a ULF ultra low frequency… and vice versa.. a LOW frequency modulates into the HIGH frequency!
here is the link to the “Efficiency scaling” HF transformation into ULF/VLF/ELF via the ionosphere.
Another link on MU, Japan
Modification of the Ionosphere by VLF Wave-Induced Electron Precipitation:
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Highly anisotropic distributions of energetic electrons and triggered VLF emissions
Bell et al.  have reported an exciting set of new observations, made near the equatorial plane of the plasmasphere on the L=3.4 flux tube, of hiss emissions between 4.0 and 5.6 kHz, highly anisotropic energetic electrons, and unusual VLF triggering effects at 10.2 kHz. Here we show that these data as a whole can be considered as the first experimental evidence of the existence of a special type of distribution function of energetic electrons with a step-like feature in the velocity component parallel to the magnetic field. Such a shape of velocity distribution can be crucial for explanation of triggered VLF emissions and chorus. Assuming the distribution to be step-like, we can readily explain the spatial distribution of energetic electrons along the field line observed by Bell et al. , and also strong wave amplification in the triggering process. We discuss how the step in the velocity distribution is maintained by the hiss emission. The frequency gap between the hiss band and the triggered signal is connected with the excitation of the quasi-electrostatic mode near the upper frequency edge of the hiss band.
Title : A Diagnostic System for Studying Energy Partitioning and Assessing the Response of the Ionosphere During HAARP Modification Experiments.
“The HAARP facility is classically referred to as an HF ionospheric modification facility. HF ionospheric modification entails the use of high power, high-frequency (~2-15MHZ) radio waves to modify the earth’s ionosphere.”
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Title : High-Energy Electron Beam-Induced Ionospheric Modification Experiments
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VLF and UHF station in Greenland: