list of radiation monitoring links:
USA and global coverage:
http://www.radiationnetwork.com/
http://www.blackcatsystems.com/RadMap/map.html
German Radiation Protection Agency:
http://strahlenbelastung.wo-wann-wer.de/
http://www.bfs.de/en/ion/imis/spurenmessungen.html
http://www.eurad.uni-koeln.de/
********************
all old links below
dutch radiation monitoring:
http://www.rivm.nl/milieuportaal/dossier/meetnetten/radioactiviteit/resultaten/
swiss radiation monitoring:
https://www.naz.ch/en/aktuell/zeitverlaeufe.html
Finland radiation monitoring:
http://www.yle.fi/tekstitv/html/P160_01.html
http://www.stuk.fi/index_en.html
http://www.yle.fi/tekstitv/html/P867_02.html
French radiation monitoring:
http://sws.irsn.fr/sws/mesure/index
http://www.irsn.fr/FR/Documents/france.htm
http://www.irsn.fr/EN/Pages/home.aspx
Japan radiation monitoring:
http://www.jaif.or.jp/english/
http://www.mext.go.jp/english/radioactivity_level/detail/1303962.htm
http://www.nisa.meti.go.jp/english/index.html
http://www.mapion.co.jp/topics/genpatu/
Norway radiation data:
http://transport.nilu.no/products/fukushima?searchterm=fuk
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jet stream forecasting and global weather monitoring:
–
Other radiation and nuclear power based links:
http://emergency.cdc.gov/radiation/
http://eurdeppub.jrc.it/eurdeppub/home.aspx#
http://www.epa.gov/japan2011/rert/radnet-data-map.html
http://www.nucleartourist.com/
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Converting From CPM to mR/hr and µR to µSv:
For your convenience here is a list of conversion units:
CPM = microroentgens (µR) per minute (after a slight correction factor)
1 µR = 1 microroentgen = 1/millionth of a roentgen
1 microroentgens (µR) = 0.01 microsievert (µSv)
1 microsievert (µSv) = 100 microroentgens (µR)
Radiation Measurement Units – International (SI) System
The curie (Ci) is replaced by the becquerel (Bq)* 1 kilocurie (kCi) = 37 terabecquerel (TBq) 1 curie (Ci) = 37 gigabecquerel (GBq) 1 millicurie (mCi) = 37 megabecquerel (MBq) 1 microcurie (µCi) = 37 kilobecquerel (kBq) 1 nanocurie (nCi) = 37 becquerel (Bq) 1 picocurie (pCi) = 37 millibecquerel (mBq) |
Becquerel (Bq)* replaces the curie (Ci) |
The rad (rad) is replaced by the gray (Gy) 1 kilorad (krad) = 10 gray (Gy) 1 rad (rad) = 10 milligray (mGy) 1 millirad (mrad) = 10 microgray (µGy) 1 microrad (µrad) = 10 nanogray (nGy) |
The gray (Gy) replaces the rad (rad) 1 gray (Gy) =100 rad (rad) 1 milligray (mGy) = 100 millirad (mrad) 1 microgray (µGy) = 100 microrad (µrad) 1 nanogray (nGy) = 100 nanorad (nrad) |
The roentgen (R) is replaced by coulomb/kg (C/kg) 1 kiloroentgen (kR) ~ 258 millicoulomb/kg (mC/kg) 1 roentgen (R) ~ 258 microcoulomb/kg (µC/kg) 1 milliroentgen (mR) ~ 258 nanocoulomb/kg (nC/kg) 1 microroentgen (µR) ~ 258 picocoulomb/kg (pC/kg) |
Coulomb/kg (C/kg) replaces the roentgen (R) 1 coulomb/kg (C/kg) ~ 3876 roentgen (R) 1 millicoulomb/kg (mC/kg) ~ 3876 milliroentgen (mR) 1 microcoulomb/kg (µC/kg) ~ 3876 microroentgen (µR) 1 nanocoulomb/kg (nC/kg) ~ 3876 nanoroentgen (nR) |
The rem (rem) is replaced by the sievert (Sv) 1 kilorem (krem) = 10 sievert (Sv) 1 rem (rem) = 10 millisievert (mSv) 1 millirem (mrem) = 10 microsievert (µSv) 1 microrem (µrem) = 10 nanosievert (nSv) |
The sievert (Sv) replaces the rem (rem) 1 sievert (Sv) = 100 rem (rem) 1 millisievert (mSv) = 100 millirem (mrem) 1 microsievert (µSv) = 100 microrem (µrem) 1 nanosievert (nSv) = 100 nanorem (nrem) |
Above table reproduced here courtesy of Health Canada
http://www.antirad.com/units.htm
Simple conversion from µR to µSv. You divide µR by 100 to get µSv.
Example: The Model 500VBR displays 123456 µR is the same as 1234.56 µSv.
The curie is the number of particles per second from 1 gram of Radium = 3.7 x 10 E10 counts/second = 37 billion cps. = 37 billion Becquerel.
1 Becquerel (Bq) = 1 count per second = 1 event per second
1 microcurie = 1 uCi = 37,000 Bq = 37,000 cps.
1 microcurie = 2.22 x 10E6 disintegrations / minute = 2,220,000 cpm.
1 nanocurie = 1 billionth of a curie = 2,220 disintegrations / minute.
1 picocurie = 2.2 disintegrations / min.
Dosage units:
Gray (Gy) = 1 Joule/kg
Sievert (Sv) = Gray x QF, where QF is a “quality factor” based on the type of particle.
QF for electrons, positrons, and xrays = 1 QF = 3 to 10 for neutrons, protons dependent upon the energy transferred by these heavier particles.
QF = 20 for alpha particles and fission fragments.
The Sievert is a measure of biological effect.
Converting older units:
1 rad = 1 centigray = 10 milligrays ( 1 rad = 1cGy = 10 mGy )
1 rem = 1 centisievert = 10 millisieverts ( 1 rem = 1cSv = 10 mSv )
1 mrad = 10 uGy
Nominal background radiation absorbed dose of 100 mrad/year = 1 mGy/yr.
Nominal background radiation dose biological equivalent of 100mrem/year = 1mSv/yr.
Occupational whole body limit is 5 rem/yr = 50 mSv/yr. ( Recently proposed that levels be reduced to 2 rem/yr.)
2.5 mrem/hr or 25 uSv/hr is maximum average working level in industry.
Exposure rate from Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) ; an empirically derived conversion factor for Ra-226 decay series: 1.82 microR/ hour = 1 picoCurie/gram.
Conversion chart for CPM to mSv/h is here:
http://www.antirad.com/units.htm
http://unit-converter.org/en/equivalent_dose/mSv.html
http://www.blackcatsystems.com/GM/converting_CPM_mRhr.html
There is a graph available showing the relative sensitivity for other gamma energies.
This page briefly describes the various units of radiation
Background Radiation Levels
Source millirems Natural Radon 200 Other than Radon: 100 Cosmic 27 Terrestrial 28 Internal 39 Total 300 Nuclear Fuel Cycle 0.05 Consumer Products* 10 Medical Diagnostic X-rays 39 Nuclear Medicine 14 Total 53 Total about 360 mrems/year *Includes building material, television receivers, luminous watches, smoke detectors, etc. Source: National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement (NCRP 93)
There is a nice graph from the University of Michigan.
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